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Global Crimes Analysis
Global Crimes Analysis

Global crimes always cause world issues, affecting international justice systems. During the last years, the globalization of the world economy has been accompanied with the rising of the international impact of global crimes to record levels. Such an increase in international crimes represents the dark side of globalization. Transnational criminal organizations have expanded their criminal activities through utilizing ever-changing technologies and adapting intricate network structures that are difficult to trace and stop. It has resulted in a record-breaking scale of international crimes. The most common cases of global crimes are war issues, drug and human trafficking, cybercrimes and others.

War crimes are exceptionally serious violations of laws, or customs of war and deportation aimed to enslave the civilian population of the occupied territory, murdering or torturing prisoners of war, taking and killing hostages, robbing public or private property, destroying human settlements, and devastation not justified by the military necessity. They are not associated with the state and represent the excess of executors. Cases of such crimes are not amenable to international military tribunals, but to national military courts. The most famous international military tribunal of the twentieth century was the Nuremberg Trial, which took place in 1945-1946. It is notable for the prosecution of leaders of Nazi Germany. This trial had a huge impact on the international justice system, eventually leading to the establishment of a permanent international criminal court. It dealt with cases of war crimes and the ones against humanity in 2002.

Drug trafficking is still the most profitable business for criminals, the cost of which is estimated at 320 billion U.S. dollars. According to the UNODC, an approximate cost of cocaine and opiates in the world market in 2009 was respectively 85 and 68 billion U.S. dollars. Almost all countries have measures of prosecution for the distribution of any drugs, except the Netherlands, and two U.S. states. The latter are Washington and Colorado, where so-called “soft drugs” are legalized, as they are less dangerous than “hard ones” and are believed to be even less harmful than alcohol. In North Korea, the turnover of “soft drugs” is not regulated. In some Muslim countries, alcohol is forbidden, and its sale is equivalent to the drug trade. Trafficking of “hard drugs”, however, results in criminal penalties in all countries. It is especially harshly punished in China, Iran, Singapore, and some other countries, even up to capital punishment. However, according to the International Centre for Science in Drug Policy, the global war on the drug trade is actually lost, and drug use should be viewed as a problem, which lies in the health sector, but not the criminal law. National governments, the efforts of which have been recently aimed at eliminating the drug supply to consumers at the grassroots level, should switch to researching other approaches solving the problem of addiction, such as decriminalization and the limited legalization of “hard drugs”.

Human trafficking is a global criminal activity, whereby men, women, and children are targets of sexual or labor exploitation. Although figures vary, according to the estimate, published by the International Labor Organization (ILO) in 2005, the number of victims of human trafficking is about 2.4 million people. The profit on this trade is approximately 32 billion U.S. dollars. Thus, more recent and accurate estimates of the ILO general trends in the area of forced labor allow concluding that the scale of the problem is much more significant. In Europe, only one trade, mainly in women and children for sexual exploitation, annually brings three billion U.S. dollars. Human trafficking is considered a criminal offense in all countries of the world. However, the definition of the crime may be different in some countries. For example, in Sweden, even an attempt to purchase sexual services is equivalent to aiding human trafficking and is criminally punishable.

Cybercrime includes several areas, but one of the most profitable is an identity theft. Criminals are increasingly using the Internet to steal personal data and obtain access to bank accounts and payment card data. Crimes in the sphere of information technologies are often international. Therefore, to combat them, the international cooperation is of utmost importance. The Convention on Cybercrime ETS N 185 was signed by the Council of Europe on November 23, 2001 in Budapest. It is open for signature by both members of the Council of Europe and non-member states, which have participated in its elaboration. In particular, it was signed by the U.S. and Japan. According to the Convention, each country is required to create necessary legal conditions for the provision of the competent authorities with the following rights and obligations to combat cybercrime. The latter include seizing a computer system or part of the media, and manufacturing and confiscating copies of computer data to ensure the integrity and preservation of stored computer information relating to a criminal case. The Convention also requires creating necessary legal conditions, obliging Internet providers to collect or intercept required information, as well as to help law enforcement agencies. It is recommendable to oblige providers to maintain the complete confidentiality of the facts of such cooperation. At the beginning of 2002, Protocol N 1 was adopted to the Convention on Cybercrime. It adds to the list of crimes dissemination of the racist and other nature, inciting to violence, hatred, or discrimination against an individual or group of individuals, based on race, nationality, religion, or ethnicity.

Nowadays, there are about two hundred countries in the world, and each of them has more or less developed regulator of social relations - the right. Everywhere it has its own characteristics due to factors specific to a particular country. However, among them there are groups united by common laws. The combination of the latter forms different criminal justice systems. The present ones are as follows:

1. The Romano-Germanic criminal justice system. The Romano-Germanic legal family or the family of the continental law (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and other countries) has a long history. Each country with this system has a written constitution for the norms, which recognize the supreme legal force, expressed as constitutional laws and regulations. The constitution distinguishes different government facilities in the field of law-making, and in accordance with this, various sources of law are differentiated.

2. The Anglo-American criminal justice system. Unlike the states of Romano-Germanic family, where the main source of right is the law, in the countries of the Anglo-Saxon legal family, the law is a source of a judicial precedent, rules set forth in the decisions of judges. This family includes the USA, Britain, Northern Ireland, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, as well as thirty-six countries of the British Commonwealth.

3. The Muslim criminal justice system. The Islamic law is a system of standards expressed in the religious form and based on the Muslim religion - Islam. The latter comes from the idea that the existing law is derived from God, who, at a certain moment, opened it to the mankind through the Prophet Muhammad. In contrast to other justice systems, it covers all areas of social life, not just those, which are subject to legal regulations.

As a summary, it can be said that crime is one of the global problems of humanity, the level of which does not decrease with time. Moreover, it rises, and crimes change, becoming more dangerous and sophisticated and creating a danger for citizens of countries on all continents. Nowadays, international cooperation is essential for combating crimes. Creating international law enforcement organizations, signing treaties, modifying existing laws, and adopting new ones are necessary in order to control the global crime level.

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