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Global Warming
Global Warming

Climate plays a major role in the life of individuals, and in the formation, development, and destruction of the entire human civilization. Many elements depend on it such as the well-being of society, human health, epidemiological situation, productivity, economic conditions, the pace and types of construction, work and condition of the transport system, etc. In accordance with the climatic conditions, material and financial resources of a society define and develop the spiritual and cultural life of each ethnic group. The climate has a direct impact on technical equipment, scientific and economic potential of modern civilization. Therefore, the climatic changes should attract much attention of ordinary people, scientists, and politicians. Particular attention to the climate began to manifest itself after the second half of the twentieth century. At that time, the trend was set to a fairly significant increase in the surface temperature, so that climate forecasts were made for the next decade. Thus, global warming is a today’s problem that should be of great importance because of the complications that may happen to the future life of people.

One of the most significant impacts on the biosphere and its subsystems is related to the human activity, negative consequences of which cause global warming. It manifests itself in the change of climate and biota: the production process in ecosystems, shifting boundaries of plant formations, changes in crop yields. These effects are of particular importance for the high and mid-latitude of Northern Hemisphere. These regions are one of the main sources and at the same time objects of such influences. The global warming manifests itself rather strongly, according to the calculations, the temperature of the atmosphere most significantly increases in high and middle latitudes. Furthermore, the nature of high latitudes is particularly susceptible to various effects as it very slowly restores. On the other hand, the processes in the Arctic may have a significant impact on the global change. For example, dynamics and optical properties of snow, ice, and permafrost participate in biogeochemical cycles, etc. Evaluation of the role of the Arctic in the formation of a global change should take into account the interaction of the following factors: the biota and the global cycle of carbon dioxide, hydrology, permafrost, snow cover and glaciers, coastal processes, ocean circulation and a structure of the bottom water, dynamics, heat balance and composition of the atmosphere, solar and geomagnetic effects. All these elements show the importance of mathematical modeling of climatic large-scale processes in the ecosystems of high and middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere.

Thus, it is necessary to provide arguments about global warming preconditions and its current results. In the late 60th and early 70th years of the twentieth century, scientists paid attention to the upward trend in global surface air temperature. An analysis of the average temperatures for more than a century of observations showed that there was no gradual increase in temperatures and the abrupt transition to the algorithm for growth. However, with the overall growth recorded during a significant reduction in temperature, after the complex analysis it was established that the rapid growth of temperature had occurred. In those years, it was suggested that the temperature increase occurred due to the greenhouse effect and the carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere. Moreover, many researchers began to regard the presence of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere as not just a leading and dominant factor in the growth of temperature.

It is known that along with carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere, greenhouse effect causes water vapor, as well as release of methane, ozone, argon, freon, etc. However, their proportion, except the water vapor, in the greenhouse effect is not so large. Therefore, while creating a theoretical framework of modern global warming, the scientists began to ignore the presence in the atmosphere of other gases and have taken into account only the amount of carbon dioxide in their mathematical calculations. As in the geological past, the growth or decline in temperature until the onset of sub-tropical temperatures at the poles or the occurrence of extensive continental ice sheets, usually accompanied by changes in the geology, has proven that there are considerable concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. High concentrations of carbon dioxide, for example, in the Mesozoic era, caused high surface air temperatures and vice versa. When the ice sheet developed in the late Carboniferous time, the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere was even much lower than today. However, it was believed that in the geological past, the growing rate of atmospheric carbon dioxide was significantly lower than today, and it served as a slowly flowing source in the bowels of the earth geodynamic (tectonic) processes.

The only source of atmospheric carbon dioxide in the modern era, in the opinion of the absolute majority of climate scientists, could be man-made emissions. It is believed that terrestrial volcanic eruptions in the atmosphere release not so many greenhouse gases, and aerosols. However, a huge amount of light volcanic ash significantly reduces the transparency of the atmosphere. The exceptional breadth and a large number of studies in the field of contemporary global warming, which were conducted in the second half of the twentieth century, led to the fact that between the modern warming and man-made carbon dioxide emissions an original equality is set.

While discussing the reasons of the current global warming, anthropogenic factor is immediately implied. Such statement of the problem about the source of atmospheric carbon dioxide emissions is contrary to a number of physical and geological factors. The first mismatch is that it is impossible to lift the upper part of the atmosphere and diffusion is significantly heavier than carbon dioxide. This contradiction is trying to explain the possibility of rapid mixing due to the high mobility of air masses, especially during the movement of atmospheric fronts. The second discrepancy is detected in the analysis of the progress of change in temperature and the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide for any interval of the last century. The graphs of temperatures and concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide that is released yearly are the two or three-year intervals. Moreover, this frequency is interdependent and coherent. Yet it is not only important, but it is the key source of atmospheric carbon dioxide emissions, which cause global warming. If you take into account the truth of anthropogenic source of carbon dioxide, it can be assumed that the source must be permanent and never slows down, but accelerates. After all, the world is changing every year, industrial production increases the need for continuous burning of fossil fuels in ever greater amounts. However, the process is never slowed down or stopped. Periodicity in the flow of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, which is recorded by the direct observation, implies the action of a coming natural spring.

Concerning global warming, ocean volcanisms make their impact in certain terrestrial landscapes. However, in this case it is necessary to talk not only about the direct emissions of carbon dioxide from the Earth's surface into the atmosphere. High density of many greenhouse gases causes high methane and carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere, process of which is continuously growing. Although methane according to researchers from NASA has a 20-fold heat retention effect compared with the carbon dioxide, its role in the current global warming is to direct participation in the greenhouse effect as methane is a direct source of atmospheric carbon dioxide emissions. When methane is released into the atmosphere, it reacts with oxygen and hydrogen molecules. This especially vigorous reaction occurs in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Methane destroys the ozone only partially, but also after the reaction with hydrogen and oxygen, carbon dioxide recreates steam, i.e. gases having the highest greenhouse effect. If the first element due to its high density in the troposphere is slowly lowered, then the steam is redistributed in the upper troposphere while creating nacreous clouds. Apart from its role in the greenhouse effect, it can also change the transparency of the atmosphere and thereby regulate the flow solar heat on the surface of the Earth.

After that, it is important to answer the question of where and how can a huge amount of methane enter the atmosphere and change temperature on the Earth surface. It is well known that a major producer of methane on the surface of the Earth is the lake-marsh system and tundra landscapes in which the shortage of oxygen decomposes organic matter and creates a “swamp” gas. Similarly, the manufacturer of methane are tropical mangrove landscapes, common in the coastal lowlands on either side of the equator, as well as areas within which are deposits of solid, liquid, and gaseous fossil fuels.

Just a few years ago, scientists discovered a new and most powerful source of methane, which is located at the bottom of the oceans. It exists within the global system at ocean-average ranges, total length of 60,000 km. Through fractures in the axial part of these ridges, called rifts, on the surface of the ocean floor with a certain periodicity mantle material begin to come out. During hydration occurs creation of methane. This lightweight gas quickly reaches the surface of the ocean and the atmosphere is removed. However, it is known that during the underwater eruptions other than methane, various thin volcanic materials produce carbon dioxide. If carbon dioxide is soluble in cold bottom waters and subsequently spent on the metabolism of aquatic organisms, then thin volcanic material is deposited on the sea floor, slopes of volcanoes and submarine ridges. Volcanism within the oceans is also taking place within the so-called “subduction” areas, as well as in areas of conflict of oceanic lithospheric plates and the locations of the island arcs. Methane flow in these parts of the oceans is governed only by the conditions under which volcanic eruptions occur. In this case, if mainly methane is released under the water when surface eruptions occur, a small amount of volcanic gas is emitted. Prolonged influence of the gases on the atmosphere leads to deterioration of transparency which in its turn causes an increase in temperature. Thus, the frequency of volcanic phenomena can regulate the temperature changes and the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. In other words, the rule of spreading phenomena (moving apart the crust of Earth) occurs in the subduction areas (the confluence of the lithospheric plates), whereas volcanic eruptions leads to entering of methane and volcanic ash into the atmosphere. Sometimes the process of underwater volcanic activity, just like on the earth's surface, decay, so that there is a temporary suspension of these global processes. Therefore, the atmosphere of the Earth when it comes to temperature begins to act like a “heat engine” because of a large portion of methane and carbon dioxide emissions.

Global warming relates to the gradual increase in the average temperature of Earth's atmosphere and oceans. The planet is getting warmer, and it has a catastrophic effect on the ice caps on the Earth. The temperature rises, the ice begins to melt, which causes the sea level to rise. Worldwide the sea level rises 2 times faster than 150 years ago. In 2005, 315 km3 of ice from Greenland and Antarctica melted into the sea. Just to compare, the city of Moscow in one year uses 6 km3 of water. In 2001, scientists predicted that by the end of the century, sea level would rise by 0.9 meters. This rise in water level is enough to affect more than 100 million people around the world, but now many experts are worried that their predictions may be incorrect. Thus, the global warming is rather important issue that should be researched, controlled, and prevented.

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