Know More About Motor Controllers
Know More About Motor Controllers

In simple terms, motor controllers are devices that regulate the operations of electric motors. They are devices that facilitate or provide accurate control of a motor-a rather vital ingredient for any motion control application. Motor controllers usually include an automatic or manual means for both starting as well as stopping a motor, slowing down or speeding up, choosing reverse or forward rotation, not to mention controlling other operational provisions.       

Typically, motor controllers are categorized into two main types, mainly:     

Electronic units: quite complex and comprise features like variable frequency and starting drives.      They can be programmed to respond to pre-set running conditions and system inputs.       

Electromechanical units: Utilize electromagnetic relays or contractors in starting, reversing, and stopping the direction of a motor.      

 Currently, there are numerous forms of motors finding use in various industries across the globe that can be now regulated by multiple types of motor controller ICs. The three most popularly used motor types include the servo motor, DC motor, and stepper motor, all with numerous variants.     

 Common Types of Motor Controllers:       

1.DC Motor Controllers     

 When it comes to the DC Motor controllers, they are divided into two primary forms mainly: Brushed DC motors and brushless DC motors. Each of these types of motors boasts a non-moving magnetic fields source called a stator, as well as a rotating magnetic fields source called a rotor. In essence, the distinct interaction between stator and rotor magnetic fields is what results in the motor shaft turning.       Brushed DC motors are operated through the application of DC voltage across the motors' terminals. These motor controllers feature electromagnet rotors and permanent magnet stators. The brushes deliver commutating current emanating from the external terminals of the motor to the coils of the moving rotor.      Alternatively, brushless DC motors boast electromagnetic stators and permanent magnet rotors. Of the two motors, brushed DC motors are the least used particularly in precision motion control operations since they are challenging to control.  

     2.Stepper Motor Controllers:     

 These are motors which convert digital pulses into distinct mechanical shaft rotations. Their name emanates from the fact that the digital pulses control the shaft's rotation in small angular steps.' Stepper motors are available in numerous ranges of angular resolution ranging from relatively low resolutions of 0.72 degrees/step to 90 degrees/step.      Usually, the torque and speed of stepper motors are determined by the distinct amount of current through their windings. These types of motors are low cost and simple yet highly reliable to the extent that they can function in virtually any setting.    

  3. Servo Motor Controllers     

 Finally, servo motor controllers are motors that rely on coded signals to determine their angular displacement. The coded signal is usually the width of the pulse applied to their control terminals. These controllers are operated in closed loops (needs some analog feedback which may often be offered by potentiometers) to help it determine the current position of the rotor.       Therefore, the repeatability of the positioning of a servo motor majorly depends on how stable the potentiometer is among other components within the feedback circuit. Compared to stepper motors that operate without getting feedback, servo motors are a better option, especially where it is vital to monitor the position of the rotor at whatever time.     


 Final Word: Motor controllers are vital components, especially considering the numerous applications they help propel across different industries. Designed to both start as well as stop the motor not to mention to safeguard the machine, motor, as well as the operator, the importance of motor controllers cannot be understated-hence the need to understand better what they are as well as how they operate for efficient operation.

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