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Avanu Webmux Network Traffic Manager, network load balancer

By Pamela Sun

Traditionally, web pages are designed for network links that exhibit slight packet loss and low latency, such as high speed fixed line and digital subscriber line (DSL) links. They often fail to meet the user’s expectations to deliver adequate performance over lower performing network links that we have in the mobile phone world.

User connectivity over bandwidth constrained links combined with high latency and packet loss experience slower page loads, thereby inflating the response times for applications. There are varying latencies from the different network types. Fixed access connection such as DSL typically exhibits lower latency than wireless networks.

We also have plenty of bandwidth variations between these network types. Different networks with varying performance metrics have different results for web applications.

When mobile users access applications that are designed for faster-fixed line users, the results are unexpected. Much of this can be aided by a load balancer with an optimized TCP stack for both front and back end connections.

Behavioral Impact

There are many studies available that demonstrate the behavioral impact of poorly performing applications. The ultimate goal for a web page is to load in less than 100 msec. After the 1 second mark, the user thought process is interrupted and after 10 seconds their dialogue gets changed. Therefore, the poorly performing applications translate to less revenue.

TCP Insufficiencies

HTTP Web Applications sit on top of Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). However, TCP was developed in the 1980’s and has many performance related inadequacies. It understands that applications exist on networks with no latency related problems. When TCP was created, the focus was on congestion control mechanisms, not latency.

However, the nature of HTTP makes it very sensitive to high latency. These days, almost all networks exhibit varying degrees of high latency. Latency varies widely, since so many factors contribute to it.

TCP has a lot of work to do under the covers, to provide reliable delivery. Unlike UDP, its guaranteed delivery requires a lot of overhead which degrades an application’s performance.

TCP is the prime protocol in use today, and unfortunately you can’t avoid this overhead if you want to communicate over the Internet.

TCP Request/Receive Behavior

TCP does not support multiple parallel sessions. You need multiple TCP sessions for multiple sessions. It is essentially just a stream of bytes with no internal structure.
Its 3-way handshake exhibits significant delays even before the first user data is sent. TCP offers you a reliable stream that handles packet loss very well but it doesn’t guarantee timely delivery. Therefore its orientation is not latency/performance focused.

Latency is the Biggest Problem

Latency is the biggest problem with application performance. If you are expecting a high-speed web browsing experience, then the only available natural option is to shorten the RTT.
After a certain threshold increasing bandwidth does not decrease latency. We can buy bandwidth, but for latency, we need to shorten the cable. This is expensive unless we use a Content Delivery Network (CDN).
Nevertheless, a CDN cannot be used for everything. They are not so good with dynamic content and pose challenges in SSL certificate management.

 

The most basic would be a simple PING testing network layer reachability. Or at a more advanced level,
the load balancer can inspect packet headers for specific keywords or request certain file types.

 

More complex health checks are required when the network stack is functioning but the problem lies somewhere higher up the stack, in the application layer. AVANU health checks are application specific. The WebMux examines server responses to validate whether it’s operational or not.

 

The WebMux health checks suit all application requirements - custom created scripts, HTTP Checks,
TCP connects, DNS, NTP, POP3, SNMP, and a basic level PING.

 

An HTTP health checker would examine the HTTP returns code to validate functionality. An HTTP 200
or 404 would deem that the HTTP service is fully operational. For additional granularity, the return codes are further tailored to specify what response codes are valid.

 

 

Generic TCP and UDP checks offer basic initial connectivity checking. They don’t go deep into the applications and simply look at the connectivity status. Custom scripting health checks are the most sophisticated and offer a lot of flexibility to meet non-standard health checking requirements

 

 

AVANU custom scripting leaves it wide open for customers to create productive performance health checks. They can either come in the form of a Shell Script or C program.

 

 

They are useful when you want to check resources on the server that are not directly reported by the application itself. For example, a custom script is crafted to ensure that the CPU and RAM are at a certain level while breaking a predefined threshold or it would be considered an unhealthy server.

 

 

Scripted health checks are also useful to test remote servers, for example, a database holding structured data used by servers.

 


network traffic managerServer Load Balancing balancers WebMux – Network Load Balancing Methods / SolutionsApplication Delivery Network Controller (ADC),

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