Most of the cameras sold around the world today are digital. Digital cameras have been incorporated into so many devices which range from PDAs and mobile phones to modern vehicles. When incorporated into phones, they are referred to as camera phones. The digital camera, also known as a digicam by many around the world has the ability of producing digital images which can be displayed on a screen, stored in a computer hard drive or printed out (hard copy).
Movie cameras and digital cameras all share an optical system which uses a lens with a diaphragm to focus light on to an image. The shutter and diaphragm correct the amount of light to the imager. This principle is similar to that which takes place with film but the image pickup device for it is electronic rather than chemical.
Completely different from film cameras, digital cameras are designed and constructed to display images on screen just immediately after they have been recorded. They also offer the immediate possibility of storing and deleting images from memory. So many digital cameras today are designed to record moving videos with sounds. Other cameras come with the ability of cropping and stitching pictures as desired. Yet, others allow you to perform some elementary image editing.
Brief History of Digital Camera
Going back to the olden days, digital cameras can be traced back to the famous Eugene F. Lally of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. It all started when he was looking for ways on how to use a mosaic photo-sensor to capture digital images. This idea he conceived in 1961 was aimed at taking pictures of the planets together with the stars while making journeys through space so as to be able to send back reliable and correct information concerning the astronaut’s exact position.
A famous engineer at the Eastman Kodak by name Steven Sasson was the first to ever invent and built an electronic camera which used a charge-coupled device image sensor, in the year 1975. Earlier cameras were using camera tube. As time passed by with improvement in technology, images become digitized in a bit to obtain better images which were good looking.
At the beginning, they were aimed for military and scientific purposes and later they were extended into medicine and other new applications such as film production. As time went by and as technology kept on advancing, in 1986 a Japanese company Nikon introduced the first ever single digital lens reflex camera (DSLR).
This invention brought a great revolution in this domain. Nevertheless, it was not until the mid-to-late 1990s that the DSLR Cameras became common among so many consumers around the world. By the year 2000s DSLR cameras had greatly replaced film cameras in almost all domains and were highly appreciated by so many people around the world. The first ever made world’s digital camera phone, the J-SH04 J-Phone made in Japan, was introduced by the famous Sharp in the year 2000. By the mid-2000s, almost all higher-end cell phones came along with an integrated digital camera. Before anyone could realize, almost all smartphones by the year 2010s came with an integrated digital camera.
Thus, what we know today in the smartphone industry is just improvements on the image qualities taken by this digital camera, thanks to continuous improvement in technology.
Digital Camera Resolution and Image Quality
Digital cameras come alongside two major image sensors, CCD and CMOS. To just all the pixels, a CCD has just one amplifier whereas each CMOS active pixel sensor comes alongside its own unique amplifier. In addition, CMOS sensors have been designed in to use less power. All digital cameras which come with small sensors have been constructed to use a back-side-illuminated CMOS sensor. Nevertheless, the overall end image quality is highly dependent on the image processing capability of the camera itself than on a particular type of sensor.
Image sensor which turns light in to discrete signals often limits the resolution of a digital camera. The higher the value read for the pixel, the brighter the image at a particular given point on the sensor. With a digital camera, depending on the physical structure of its sensor, a small colour filter array may be taken upon for use but it requires demosaicing to recreate a full high quality image. The digital camera’s pixel count is determined by the number of pixels in the sensor.
In all kinds of sensors, the pixel count is simply the product of the number of columns and the number of rows. A suitable example is a 1 megapixel which is obtained by multiplying 1, 000 by 1, 000 pixel sensor.
Before purchasing a digital camera, it’s important to know its image sharpness which determines the final quality. This depends on just every optical transformation in the chain of producing the image.
Taking a keen look at the two images above, you’ll notice that the one at the left has a higher pixel count than the one at the right side. Also, the former has a lower spatial resolution than later, the reason why there is a difference between the two. The weakness link in an optical chain which does determine the maximum resolution was pointed out by Carl Zeiss.
The illustration above can eventually be said to compare a lens with very poor sharpness on a camera but a very high resolution to another lens on a camera with very good sharpness but poor resolution.
Methods of Image Capturing
There exist three main methods of image capture, worth noting with a digital camera. Since the introduction of the first digital image capturing each of the three main methods of capturing images is based on the hardware configuration of the sensor together with its colour filters.
Single-shot capture systems: Either one sensor chip with a Bayer filter mosaic or three separate image sensors are used by the single-shot capture systems. These image sensors which incorporate each of the primary additive colours, the green, red and blue are exposed to the same image via a beam splitter.
Multi-shot capture systems:The sensors are exposed to the image following a sequence of three or just more opening of the lens aperture. The multi-shot technique incorporates many application techniques. The most common technique of application had to do with the use of just a single image sensor with up to three filters passing in front of the sensor sequentially, thus allowing additive image colours.
Micro-scanning capture is another technique of application of the multi-shot which is liked by many. This particular method has to do with the use of a single sensor chip together with a Bayer filter and physical move of the sensor on the focus plane of the lens so as to construct a very high image resolution than the native resolution offered by the chip.
Scanning capture systems:The third image capture mode is referred to as scanning. It operates the sensor that moves across the focal plane in a way not very different from the sensor of an image scanner. Only a single line of photo sensors are utilized by the linear sensors in scanning cameras. By simply moving the sensor, scanning can be accomplished or still could be done by rotating the whole camera.
The subject matter determines largely the method for a given capture. Generally, it is just inappropriate to try capturing a subject that moves with anything rather than a single system. However for commercial photographers who are working with stationary subjects and very large-format photographs, a higher colour fidelity together with larger file-sizes and higher resolutions available with multi-shots and scanning can be pretty good to take on.
Types of Digital Cameras
Digital cameras come in a wide range of prices, sizes and capabilities to meet the modern demands of photography. In addition to digital cameras used for general purposes, there exist specialized cameras, consisting of multispectral imaging equipment and astrographs which are highly used for scientific, military, medical and other very special purposes.
The compact digital cameras are designed and built in ways to allow for portability, all of which are pocketable and they are particularly suitable for snapshots. Most of these digital cameras come with retractable lens which allows for optical zoom. The lens in most of the models is protected by an auto actuating lens which keeps it safe. All compact digital cameras are designed in very simple ways to allow for easy use.
Rugged compact digital cameras are designed and built to include protection against heat, submersion, cold conditions, pressure and shock. This type of camera is generally considered as the best underwater digital camera. This model is often described as follows;
It acts perfectly as a waterproof camera without showing any signs of failure.
Apart from being a waterproof camera, it can also act as a freezeproof camera.
It’s a shockproof camera.
It’s a crush proof camera.
They are also reputed for being heatproof.
Almost all camera manufacturers around the globe have at least one product in this great category which is outstanding in so many different ways with great features. Most of them are waterproof up to 82 feet whereas just a few of them will float and show no sign of destruction at the end of the day.
So many brands do offer action cameras which are rugged. Due to their small size there are easily attached to helmets, bicycles and arms. Many are wide angle and fixed focus, in addition they come with the ability of taking still pictures and videos.
Reasons why you should take on a Waterproof digital camera
Searching and finding the right waterproof digital camera may mean identifying your needs and matching them to the camera in question. The reasons why waterproof digital cameras are replacing other types are many. Some of which are;
- The waterproof digital camera is very easy to use, even some of the best types you shall find in the market were designed and built to be very user friendly. Most of them come as point and shot. Nevertheless, there are also a numerous number of options for those who desire choosing their own suitable setting. Most of them come with great features reflecting the advancement of technology in this domain. One can use online processing services with most of them. The images on the camaras can be emailed to other devices such as the printer.
- Waterproof digital cameras come along side great features to provide you with high quality images which can be hardly rivalled by any other camera.
- Due to the fact that the photos on digital cameras can be carefully chosen in advance for printing, it makes their use reasonably economical as the cost would be lesser as compared to those not chosen in advanced.
Some form of waterproof compact is now offered by most major camera manufacturers as part of their own rugged compact range. They are so often waterproof from depths of 10 to 30 metres. Even though there exist a couple of exceptions not respecting this. In a more general way most of the waterproof compacts are built to be perfectly handy and designed to be portable companions for an underwater adventurer.
Below is a list of waterproof digital cameras with some of their outstanding features and weaknesses. This list is going to be of great help for you in choosing the best underwater digital camera for your underwater adventures.
Waterproof digital cameras: The Olympus TG-4
- This is a waterproof camera up to a depth of 15 metres.
- The digital underwater camera weighs 247g including its card and battery.
- The ISO 100-6, 400 is the sensitivity of this digital underwater camera.
- It is one of the waterproof cameras which comes with a lens of 25-100mmf/2-4.9
- The dimensions of this waterproof camera are 112 x 66 x 31mm
This is an ideal camara for general snorkelling and free diving in shallow water since it comes with waterproof up to a depth of 15 metres. This digital underwater camera features a 4 x optical zoom lens together with a 16MP CMOS sensor and a 3in 460k-dot LCD display which is quite good for a modern waterproof digital camera. The TG-4 waterproof camera offers a host of automatic shooting modes with an inclusion of up to five different underwater modes. It has a greater post-processing potential thanks to its raw image captures. For a long time now, Olympus has been selling a range of accessories which can be used with the TG-4, some of which are the FCON-T01 fisheye attachment which cost £130. They also sell the LG-1 Macro ring light flash for £30.
This waterproof digital camera is generally priced at £263 a price worth its great features.
Waterproof digital cameras: The Nikon AW130
- This digital underwater camera is waterproof up to a depth of 30 metres.
- Not only being a waterproof camera, it is also shockproof to 7 feet.
- This digital underwater camera weighs 221g including its card and battery.
- It is one of the underwater digital cameras which come with a sensitivity of ISO 125-6,400
- The dimensions of this waterproof camera are; 110.4 x 66 x 26.8mm.
- This digital waterproof camera comes with a powerful sensor of 1/2.3in, 16MP CMOS
Reviews of waterproof digital cameras showed that this is one of the best underwater digital camera which is highly appreciated by those using it presently and those who had used it in the past. This waterproof camera with a depth rating of 30m has been found ideal after being tested during swimming, snorkelling and shallow water dives. This digital camera comes with a built in Wi-Fi and NFC connectivity which enables you to comfortably transfer any image of your choice to a smartphone or tablet. You are also offered the possibility of controlling this camera remotely thanks to these features.
This waterproof camera also comes with a built-in Altimeter and a GPS module that writes down location and depth data directly and immediately. This waterproof digital camera is priced at £200. A price which suits its wonderful services offered as a modern digital camera.
Waterproof digital cameras: The Panasonic Lumix FT-5
- It is waterproof up to the depths of 13 metres.
- This waterproof digital camera has a sensitivity of ISO 100-3,200.
- The camera weighs 188g without inclusion of its battery and card.
- It is designed to use a lens of 28-128mm f/3.3in, 16.1MP
- This camera has the following dimensions; 109,2 x 67.4 x 28,9mm; and
- It comes with a manual exposure control
This digital waterproof camera is enhanced with a built-in GPS module which is aimed at recording location data together with depth. The camera also comes with a built in Wi-Fi and NFC aimed at offering connectivity so that you can pair the camera with your smartphone or tablet without facing any difficulties. In addition to these features, you are able to control this camera remotely. Most review of waterproof digital camera sites classified it as one of the highly rated waterproof digital camera which cost only £200.
Waterproof digital cameras: The Cannon D30
Priced at £180, it has the following specs;
- It is a waterproof camera to depths of up to 25 metres;
- The camera has a sensitivity of ISO 100-3,200;
- It is designed and built to a dimension of 109.4 x 68 x 27.5mm;
- This camera weighs 218g including its battery and card;
- It comes with a sensor of 1/2.3in, 12.1MP back illuminated CMOS; and
- It has a possession lens of 28 to 140mm and f/3.9-4.8.
First produced in 2014, it is known as the waterproof digital camera which shows good value for money as per reviews of waterproof digital camera. The camera is Ideal for swimming, snorkelling and shallow dives of up to 25 metres. Unlike the others it has no built in Wi-Fi neither does it contain NFC connectivity. It comes with a basic GPS which can tag all images with location data but does not extend to recording and producing altitude data.
Waterproof digital cameras: The Nikon 1 AW1
Priced at £550, waterproof digital camera review reveal this particular camera as one of the best digital waterproof cameras of all time with respect to its improved technology. Below are some of its key properties;
- This camera can resist water up to depths of 15 metres without showing any signs of weakness;
- It is one of the waterproof cameras that weighs a little more when compared to others, that is 356g including its battery and card;
- This waterproof camera is designed to a dimension of 113.3 x 71.5 x 37.6mm;
- It comes with a sensitivity of ISO 160-6,400;
- It has a lens of 30-74mf/3.5-5.6; and
- Built with 14.2MP CX-format CMOS sensor.
Designed in 2014, it remains the only compact waterproof camera to support and withstand total immersion in water, showing no signs of weakness or failure in the least of its functionalities. Waterproof digital camera reviews revealed this camera as one of the best underwater digital camera to take on for your adventures. This resistant camera also comes with a built-in GPS and NFC connectivity permeating it to collect position and altitude data easily.
Best Underwater Digital Camera: The GoPro Hero4 Silver
Priced at £330, it is considered as the best underwater digital camera following review of waterproof digital cameras. This underwater digital camera has the following characteristics;
- The camera weighs 147g together with its housing designed for adventures even under deep water bodies;
- It comes with a lens of 14/21/28mm, f/2.8;
- This underwater digital camera is waterproof to a depth of up to 40 metres which is pretty good for any underwater adventurer;
- It is designed to a dimension of 71 x 71 x 39mm;
- Has a suitable sensitivity of ISO 100-6,400 and
- it is produced with powerful sensors of 1/2.3in, 12MP CMOS
Using this waterproof digital camera, you have the possibility of being much more precise when taking still images. If you purchase this camera, you eventually profit from its special accessory being the specialist underwater filter. The camera is affordable and its features worth the price. Various waterproof digital camera reviews sites highly rate this particular camera for its ability to be used even in deep water levels. The pictures taken with this camera are pretty good. Almost all of what an underwater adventurer is in search of in a camera can be found in it, a reason why so many underwater adventurers often prefer purchasing it as it guarantees them that they shall not need to purchase another for same duty in the near future. This camera is built to be long lasting with high quality materials, most of which resist attack from the elements.
Below is a pretty good looking picture which was taken with this GoPro Hero4 Silver underwater digital camera.
Reviews of waterproof digital camera: The Nikon COOLPIX AW130 Camera
It is a 16 megapixel ideal digital underwater camera constructed to meet the needs of deep divers. The camera comes with amazing and numerous features, and remains the best underwater digital camera which you can take along almost anywhere be it rafting, boating, scuba diving, fishing, hiking and snowboarding. Some qualities of the camera indicate it is waterproof, shockproof and freezeproof. The camera comes with a built-in Wi-Fi which offers you the possibility of instantly transferring pictures from it to your smartphone or tablet as desired. This underwater digital camera also has GPS features, underwater depth gauge, interactive world map, an altimeter and an electronic high quality compass. This underwater camera also works great with a Near Field Communication technology (NFC) which works generally with android 4.0 and above. Below is a highlight of the features of the Nikon COOLPIX AW130;
It is the only waterproof camera ever known to go up to depths of 100 feet and has been referred to by many as the best underwater digital camera. It is ideal for snorkelling and diving too. Even at such great depths, this underwater digital camera shows no weakness.
This camera is freeze proof up to 14 degrees Fahrenheit and shows no signs of weakness.
This is one of the few underwater digital cameras which is capable of resisting shocks resulting from 7 feet of height without showing even the least sign of weakness. So you need not fear of the camera sliding off your hand at less than 7 feet after you must have purchased it, for its resistance to shocks will always keep it functioning efficiently without failing.
Even in dusty and sandy environments of the beach it takes pretty nice pictures thanks to its dustproof property. It is designed and built to resist dust and its disastrous effects.
Built in GPS and Mapping system
This is a pretty good choice to choose as an underwater digital camera as it records the position of pictures and does allows you to access them whenever needed through a map button.
Higher resolution and wide angle
This digital camera provides you with a wide angle of view and a higher resolution power compared to most of the other underwater digital cameras.
This underwater digital camera comes with a fine zoom feature which allows you to obtain a 10x magnification for the images which you wish to take. The camera presents items on the picture as if they were very close to you. A pretty good feature loved by many underwater digital camera users.
This best underwater digital camera comes alongside anti-vibration features which are aimed at annulling shakes and vibration actions on photos and videos thereby providing you with sharp and steady photos and videos.
Create action sequence
Just by simply holding down the shutter button you can take as much as 5 shuts per second.
Make HD videos
With this camera you can make HD video just with a single click. The camera comes with anti-vibration features to bring unto you high quality HD videos which are not wobbling as it is the case with low standard cameras.
The camera comes with a 16-megapixel sensor which is highly sensitive and provides very high quality, detailed clear photos and videos. This camera even in low light conditions or under the water can take very clear photo or video.
This is a pretty amazing feature which you turn on whenever you wish to track all the fine details of your movements.
Depth Gauge and Altimeter
This underwater digital camera comes with built in pressure sensors which provides information on the pressure and the depth or altitude. This information is shown on the screen. It’s pretty good information since it informs you of how far you have gone from normal starting position in terms of height and depth.
Automatic target finding AF
With this amazing waterproof camera, getting clear focus in any condition is no longer a problem. With its features, it precisely identifies the target and clearly focuses on it completely even if the target is in low light or underwater conditions; all you need do is wait a few seconds before you take a clear image or video.
Add special effects to your pictures
This digital camera comes alongside 8 special effects which you can quickly choose from as you desire. With this camera you can possibly choose a white or black background so as to make your subject stand out or you could simply add special effects to your photos like vividness obtained by a single touch as you shoot.
This amazing underwater digital camera as reviews of waterproof digital camera reveal is highly rated and outstanding in the midst of a thousand for some of its unique features. This digital camera comes along with a rechargeable lithium battery which is quite long lasting after full charge. It also comes with a charger, a USB cable, cleaning brush, strap and an easy to understand user’s manual. This is the best underwater digital camera for scuba diving.
Reviews of waterproof digital camera: The Fujifilm FinePix XP 80 Camera
Below is a pretty good looking photo obtained thanks to the Fujifilm FinePix XP 80.
This is a point-and-shoot camera which always comes with a 2.7 inch LCD 16 GB SDHC card and a built-in Wi-Fi connectivity. Below is a highlight of the features that makes the camera to be considered as one of the best underwater digital camera.
This camera can take pictures down to 50 feet in water and still get clear and sharp photos. This makes it one of the best underwater digital camera which is highly used in the world for diving purposes.
This waterproof digital camera can also withstand temperatures as low as 14 degrees Fahrenheit. So it can be taken out for recording without getting destroyed by the low temperatures.
This camera was constructed with high quality materials to resist shock of up to 5.8 feet without showing any signs of failure.
The camera is constructed with high quality materials which resist every attack from the dust. So with this underwater digital camera you can freely take your clear photos even at sand places and dusty environments. If you need a camera which can resist the moving materials in the wind often blown in the desert then you can take on this one. For even in the desert, it will offer you good looking and clear photos of any object you wish to get.
This digital camera comes with a 16.4 megapixel which can comfortably allow you produce full HD videos at 60 fps and also at 240 fps for any slow motion output of your choice. This digital camera comes with a high speed processor which allows you take on full resolution burst shooting.
In camera editing
With this amazing camera, you do not need to transfer the photos to your laptop before editing them anymore. This is because the camera itself offers you the possibility to edit immediately if you desire to do so without facing any major challenges. For the camera comes with an instruction manual destined to assist you exploit all the options of your camera with ease.
Built in microphone
With this special digital camera you need not worry about recording sounds later because it comes with an internal microphone which allows recording with sounds at the same time. The digital camera also comes with wind filter features which are aimed at giving you the best quality sounds from your video.
Intelligent digital zoom
This digital camera is one which comes with a very intelligent zoom that has the ability of magnifying 10x an object while maintaining its quality. After it has magnified the image, it does not look different from that at a longer distance. With this camera you need not go too close for better image qualities even if you are in less light environments or underwater environments for you simply need to zoom at the spot. Zooming at the spot produces same images as if you were beside the object or you actually covered that distance.
Now our days sharing pictures between cameras which are in possession of Wi-Fi has become so popular and this is one of the high quality cameras which has the possibility of offering you such a service fully without restriction. Through your phone or tablet you can use this camera’s remote control features to control it successfully even if you are not actually beside it. This amazing digital camera comes with a built-in flash which can be used in 4 modes, all eventually producing efficient results. If you are in search of a modern camera with the best features, you can simply take this one.
The Leica X-U (Typ 113)
- This camera is waterproof to 49 feet
- It has a grippy rubber exterior
- It is shockproof to 4-foot drops
- Details images at high ISO
- It possesses a sharp rear display
- Cold shoe accessory mount
- Bright f/1.7 lens
- Comes with a strong manual focus experience
- It is slow autofocus
- It is expensive
- It does not support true full manual control
- Omits Wi-Fi
- Raw images
Type 113 is a special ruggedized waterproof digital camera with an SLR-sized image sensor which takes quite pretty great photos. Nevertheless this model is very expensive but worth its price.
Released late in 2014, the X (Typ 113) delivered a solid image quality in its class after review. But this model was slow to focus and had some little operational quirts. But at the end Leica has taken the same camera and redesigned it in a special way so that it can be shockproof, waterproof and dustproof in the form of X-U (Typ 113). The X-U comes with its SLR-sized image sensor in a special class of its own as compared to most underwater cameras which feature with small sensors limiting their image quality. But this model is pretty expensive and does shares the quirts of the standard X model. If you are after a more detail image that a large sensor delivers then this is the ideal camera for you.
The top controls of this camera include; a shutter speed dial, a special and dedicated button to trigger 1080p video recording and an aperture control dial. Its shutter release is completely surrounded by the power switch which could also be used to toggle between single (S) and continuous (C) shooting. It also possesses a cold shoe together with a removable protective cover which are centered behind to lens. Should in case you prefer using an external light rather than using the flash sited at the front of the X-U’s lens, you can also mount it here. With this model, buttons run across the rear to the left of the LCD. The buttons you shall find from top to bottom are; play, delete/focus, white balance, ISO and finally Menu/Set. You are offered the possibility of setting exposure compensation when shooting in Aperture Priority mode. In conclusion the Leica X-U (Typ 113) delivers great image quality on par with SLR which comes in a compact body that can go deep into water without showing any need for any sort of external housing. Standing alone in the market for its qualities, it is also priced like a Leica. This is the ideal camera with large sensors which can be taken on dives down to great depths without altering the image quality.
The SeaLife DC2000
- It is waterproof to 60 feet;
- It comes included with a 200 foot underwater housing;
- It has a wide angle lens adaptor;
- It comes with an integrated Wi-Fi technology; and
- It has a 920k-dot LCD.
- Its raw shooting slows down its performance;
- It omits optical zoom;
- Quirky control; and
- High-ISO JPGs disappoint
This is a capable-point-and-shoot camera on all land surfaces and even underwater without any image alteration thanks to a crisp, bright lens together with 1-inch sensor. This camera is rated to survive drops from a height of up to 5 feet without showing any signs of weakness. It comes with Wi-Fi recent technology which permeates the owner to communicate with other electronic devices around.